In order to understand the poverty situation in the lower six provinces of Vietnam, six years ago, our group went to the local area to conduct field research. We sat on a boat across the Mekong River, and the sunset shone on the Mekong River. I was fascinated as my fellow travelers shared with me what the Mekong meant to them. The Mekong is known as the "Mother River" because of the energy it brings to nourish the ecosystems in the basin and nurture the inhabitants on both sides of the river.However, in recent years, the amount of irrigation water in the Mekong Delta has continued to decrease, soil salinization and pests and diseases have become increasingly serious, and local farmers are also suffering. The loss of agriculture and fishery has caused poverty in local households, unstable school attendance of school children, early marriage of women and food insufficiency. The Mekong River is the longest river in Southeast Asia, with a total length of about 4200-4889 kilometers. The upper reaches of the Mekong River originates from the southeastern Himalayas. It is called the Lancang River in China. After leaving China, it flows through Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam in Southeast Asia. Wait for the five countries, and finally flow into the South China Sea from southern Vietnam. The hydrology and landforms in the basin are special, and the ecological environment is also very rich. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) survey, there are more than 20,000 species of plants, 1,200 species of birds, 800 species of reptiles and amphibians, and 430 species of mammals in the Greater Mekong River Basin; the second most diverse species of fish In the Amazon River, there are as many as 1,100 species of the rare short-nose dolphin (Ira dolphin), the 1,300-pound giant freshwater yellow snapper, and the endangered Mekong giant catfish; the resource-rich forest is the main habitat for Asian tigers .Known as the "Barn of Asia",
the Mekong River Basin is rich in rice and feeds more than 73 million people. Thailand and Vietnam are the world's second and third rice exporters, and one of the world's major exporters of grain. In addition to rice, the Mekong River Basin is also the world's largest freshwater fish farm, where 25% of the world's freshwater fish are caught, and it is the main source of protein for the basin residents. Eighty-five percent of the inhabitants of the basin depend on the river for their livelihood, engaged in fish supplementation, aquaculture, rice and crop cultivation.The Mekong River is rich in resources, and its impact on countries in the basin covers Jewelry Retouching shipping, forestry, fishery, aquaculture, irrigation, drinking water, and power generation. However, the Mekong River, an international river that spans several countries, enjoys certain rights and must share risks whether it is for development or resource acquisition. If managed properly, the Mekong River is expected to maintain its prosperity and continue to nourish the people of the vast land; if it is not managed properly, it will fall into a "tragedy of the commons". The geopolitical complexity of the Mekong River, and the different levels of development and demand among countries, all affect the willingness and effectiveness of cooperative development. Cambodian scholar Vannarith Chheang has pointed out that the increasing water quality problems of the Mekong River are mainly due to the rapid population growth in the region and the over-exploitation of the environment. The environmental development part is closely related to the industrialization of the coastal countries.
At this stage there are some examples of the damage to the environment of the Mekong River Basin caused by population growth and economic development.The first is the reduction of fish catches. The catch of the Mekong River is an important source of protein intake and livelihood for the people in the region. However, the increase in the population of the region has led to a rapid increase in the demand for fish catches. Coupled with the advancement of fishing technology, the catches have all led to a sharp decrease in fish catches. In addition, in order to exploit the shipping value of the Mekong River, countries in the basin have blasted the bottom reefs of the river; or built dams for hydroelectric power generation, etc. These reasons have affected the flow rate, flow and water quality of the Mekong River, and also changed the fishery ecology in the basin, causing fishery resources to gradually deplete. Overdevelopment of land also has considerable impacts on the watershed environment. According to WWF, forest cover in the Greater Mekong region was 55 percent in the 1970s and has dropped to 34 percent today. The reason for this is that with the rapid population growth, the government also regards land development as a way of economic development. Excessive deforestation has degraded forest lines and reduced soil and water conservation capacity, weakening the region's ability to cope with climate change and endangering the lives and properties of local communities.
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